Metalloids And Their Properties
Metalloids are chemical substances with physicochemical properties that fall somewhere between non-metal and metal. They have metallic features but are typically brittle and weak conductors of electricity. In terms of chemistry, these elements are non-metals. Metalloids can form metallic alloys.
Other physical and chemical characteristics of the metalloid elements are usually intermediate. These elements are fragile, and as a consequence, they don’t have too many structural applications. Metalloids and their derivatives are being used in catalysts, alloys, glasses, biological agents, flame retardants, optoelectronics and optical storage, pyrotechnics, electronics and semiconductors.
The six most well-known metalloids are as follows,
- Boron (B)
- Germanium (Ge)
- Silicon (Si)
- Antimony (Sb)
- Arsenic (As)
- Tellurium (Te)
Besides these, the following elements are considered to be classified as metalloids under some circumstances, Carbon
It should be remembered that all eleven of such elements can be contained in a diagonal region of the p-block on the regular periodic table, extending from boron at the upper left to astatine at the lower right. Metalloids are located below a dividing line in specific periodic tables that distinguishes metals from non-metals.
Characteristics of metalloids
- Metalloids are hard, slightly glittering compounds that are typically stable at room temperature.
- Metalloids resemble metals in appearance. Such elements, on the other hand, sometimes act as non-metals.
- The electrical conductivity of such elements is typically intermediate to strong.
- Electronic band arrangements in metalloids are considered to be similar to semiconductors and semimetals.
- Chemically, such elements are non-metals with weak non-metal behaviour.
- These elements typically have intermediate ionization energies and electronegativity properties.
- Amphoteric or weakly acidic oxides are believed to produce from metalloids.
- Such elements can be combined to create metallic alloys.
Applications of metalloids
- Each of the six metalloid elements is either toxic or has nutritional and medicinal applications.
- Antimony and arsenic compounds, for instance, are considered to be particularly toxic.
- Boron, arsenic, and silicon, on the other hand, are vital trace elements.
- Boron, arsenic, silicon, and antimony are four elements with many medical applications.
- The remaining two elements, which are germanium & tellurium, are well-known for their medicinal potential.
- Boron can also be used in pesticides, pesticides, and other herbicides.
- In the form of boric acid, this substance is an active trace element with antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal capabilities.
Application of metalloids as alloys
Metalloids and metalloid compounds are commonly used as alloys or in the manufacture of alloys as part of the mixture and dietary, toxicological, and medicinal biological agents, catalyst, flame retardants, and optical storage devices.
- Alloys produced when mixed with transition metals are highly well-represented when it refers to the lighter metalloids.
- Boron can combine with other metals to form intermetallic compounds.
- In the engineering field, nickel-boron alloys are used as ingredients in welding alloys and case strengthening compositions.
- Aluminium and iron silicon alloys are commonly used in the building and automotive sectors.
- Germanium is expected to possess a variety of alloys, particularly with coinage metals.
Anyone who is studying metalloids will get questions about what is an alloy?. A material produced by the combination of two or more metals is referred to as an alloy. Mixtures of metals as well as other elements may also be used to make alloys. The characteristics of alloys are often dissimilar to the features of their individual elements.”
List of alloys
The following are few commercially important alloys: